Emissions testing, otherwise referred to as Stack Sampling or Stack Monitoring, is the experimental process for evaluating the characteristics of industrial waste gas stream emissions into the atmosphere. Materials emitted to the air from these sources can be solid, liquid, or gas; organic or inorganic.
The important parameters to test in Emission are:
- Carbon Monoxide (CO)
- Particulate Matter (PM)
- Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)
- Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)
- Volatile Orgnanic Compounds (VOC)
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A stationary source in air quality terminology is any fixed emitter of air pollutants, such as fossil fuel burning power plants, petroleum refineries, petrochemical plants, food processing plants and other heavy industrial sources.
Purpose of Stack Emission Monitoring
- data and information from a regulated stationary source (facility) to demonstrate compliance with certain regulatory requirements
- performance information to the facility operator so that corrective action can be taken, if necessary
Control of Air Emission
The following items are commonly used as pollution control devices in industry and transportation. They can either destroy contaminants or remove them from an exhaust stream before it is emitted into the atmosphere.
- Mechanical collectors (dust cyclones, multicyclones)
- Electrostatic precipitators An electrostatic precipitator (ESP), or electrostatic air cleaner is a particulate collection device that removes particles from a flowing gas (such as air), using the force of an induced electrostatic charge.
- Particulate scrubbers Wet scrubber is a form of pollution control technology. In a wet scrubber, the polluted gas stream is brought into contact with the scrubbing liquid, by spraying it with the liquid, by forcing it through a pool of liquid, or by some other contact method, so as to remove the pollutants.
Low NOx burners, Selective catalytic reduction (SCR), Selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), NOx scrubbers, Exhaust gas recirculation, Catalytic converter (also for VOC control)
Adsorption systems, using activated carbon, such as Fluidized Bed Concentrator, Flares, Thermal oxidizers, Catalytic converters, Biofilters, Absorption (scrubbing), Cryogenic condensers, Vapor recovery systems
Acid Gas/SO2 control
Wet scrubbers, Dry scrubbers, Flue-gas desulfurization